What Agreements Did Congress Reach In The Missouri Compromise
The rebellion was betrayed just days before its scheduled start date and led to the execution of thirty-five organizers, as well as the destruction of the black church where Vesey was preaching. Slave owners were clearly on the defensive, as anti-slavery sentiment was building in the North and opposition among African Americans in the South was undeniable. As one white Charlestonian complained, “Through the Missouri question, our slaves thought there was a charter of freedoms that had been granted to them by Congress.” Most white Americans agreed that Western expansion was essential to the health of the nation. But what should be done about slavery in the West? African Americans apparently rejected slavery, and news of Congressional opposition to its expansion spread to all slave communities. Denmark Vesey, a free black man living in Charleston, South Carolina, made the most dramatic use of white disagreement over the future of slavery in the West. Vesey cited the Bible as well as congressional debates on the Missouri issue to denounce slavery from the pulpit of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, where he was a lay priest. With an important ally named Gullah Jack, Vesey organized a slave rebellion in 1822 that planned to conquer charleston`s arsenal and conquer the city long enough for the black population to flee to the Free Black Republic of Haiti. The vote in the Senate was in favor of the compromise by 24 votes to 20. The amendment and the act were passed by the Senate on February 17 and 18, 1820.
The House of Representatives then approved the Senate compromise amendment, 90-87, with all opposition coming from representatives of the free states.  The House of Representatives then approved the entire Bill 134-42 with opposition from the southern states.  The incorporation of new Western territories into the United States made slavery an explicit concern of national politics. The balance between the interests of slave states and free states had played a role from the beginning in the formation of the federal government at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The crucial compromise there, sacrificing the rights of African Americans in favor of a stronger union between the states, exploded again in 1819 when Missouri presented a petition to join the United States as a slave state. .